What is Opal?
Opal is a noncrystalline
form of the mineral silica which, despite its amorphous structure, displays
an amazing degree of internal organization. Opal is related to its more commonly
found but highly crystalline cousins quartz and agate, and is formed from amorphous
"balls" or lumps" of silica rather that from ordered, naturally
The chemical composition of opal is SiO2H2O, silicon dioxide combined with water
(an opal stone may contain up to 30% water.) The silicate minerals in the stone
add to its weight, giving it a specific gravity ranging from 1.98 to 2.5 times
that of pure water. Opal's scratch hardness is measured at 6.0 to 6.5 on the
Mohs' scale, similar in hardness to quartz, a little more than halfway between
the hardness of talc and diamond.
Most opal is more than 60 million years old and generally dates back to the
Cretaceous period when dinosaurs roamed the earth.
It is found near the earth's surface in areas where ancient geothermal hot springs
once flowed. The minerals bubbled up from beneath the surface of the earth and
slowly, over the centuries, lined the walls of cracks, vents and underground
cavities in the bedrock. Most opal is found where geothermal hot springs dried
up during seasonal periods of rainfall and extended dry periods.
Mors than 90% of the world's quality gem opals come from Southern Australia,
although it can be found in other parts of the world such as Brazil, Mexico,
Czechoslovakia and Nevada. All black opals (see below) come exclusively from
The story of opal in Australia begins more than million years ago when the
deserts of central Australia were a great inland sea, with silica-laden sediment
deposited around its shoreline. After the sea receded and disappeared to become
the great Artesian basin, weathering 30 million years ago released a lot of
the silica into a solution which filled cracks in the rocks, layers in clay,
and even some fossils. Some of the silica became precious opal. Opal is one
of the few gemstones that is sedimentary in origin. The water in opal is a remnant
of that ancient sea.
The most striking quality of opal is its ability to refract and reflect specific
wavelengths of light. In fact, the term "opalescence" was coined to
describe this phenomenon. The size and spacing of the amorphous spheres of silica
within the stone refracts specific wavelengths of light; each sphere refracting
a single, pure spectral color much like the individual microscopic droplets
of water in a rainbow. The interplay of these pure wavelengths of light gives
opal its unique visual appeal, and makes it one of the most sought-after gemstones
in the world.
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